The world is facing severe climate threats due to continuous increases in greenhouse gas emissions. Around one-fifth of global emissions are produced by the transport sector alone. Electric vehicles, as a potential replacement for conventional vehicles, can reduce global emissions. Pakistan is among the few countries severely affected by climate change impact. Therefore, Pakistan announced a national policy to increase the electric vehicles market share, calling for the development of electric vehicles charging stations nationwide. This work addresses this urgency by investigating renewable-based electric vehicles charging and hydrogen fueling stations (ECHFS). Seven possible ECHFS configurations are introduced. Then, a four-level sustainable design framework is developed, with the help of pre-feasibility analysis, HOMER optimization tool, and a multi-criteria decision-making method, to identify the most optimal ECHFS configuration. Solar PV with biogas generator configuration emerged as an optimal ECHFS, which is cost-effective (0.475 $/kWh cost of energy and 3.62 $/kg cost of hydrogen), reliable (unmet electric and hydrogen loads are 0.14 % and 0 %), eco-friendly (reduced 942 tons CO2 annually), and socio-politically acceptable. Sensitivity analysis showed that the optimal system is economically sensitive to simultaneously increasing charging and hydrogen fueling demands. The breakeven distance is estimated to be 59.6 km compared to the grid. The outcome of this work contributes to United Nations sustainability goals 7a, 8, 11, 13, and 13.2 and holds the potential to aid the sustainable development of ECHFS infrastructure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105076
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

    WoS ResearchAreas Categories

  • Construction & Building Technology
  • Green & Sustainable Science & Technology
  • Energy & Fuels

ID: 49262181